1.3. Significance of the study…………………………………………………………………………….. 6

1.4. Research question……………………………………………………………………………………….. 7

1.5. Research hypothesis……………………………………………………………………………………. 7

1.6. Definition of key terms……………………………………………………………………………….. 8

1.7. Purpose and objective of the study……………………………………………………………… 9

1.8. Limitations and delimitations of the study………………………………………………….. 10

 

 

CHAPTER TWO: Review of the Related Literature

2.1. Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………… 12

2.2. Research related to reading comprehension………………………………………………… 12

2.2.1 Theoreticalbackground of reading comprehension………………………………… 13

2.2.2. Vocabulary acquisition and L2/FL reading comprehension……………………… 14

2.2.3. Empirical studies of reading comprehension……………………………. 14

2.3. Multimedia device………………………………………………………………………………………. 15

  1. 3. 1. Multimedia definition……………………………………………………………………………. 16

2.3.2. Multimedia and education…………………………………………………….. 17

  1. 3. 2.1. Strength of multimedia English teaching……………………………………………… 17
  2. 3. 2. 2.Effect of multimedia on learning…………………………………………………………. 18
  3. 3. 4. Cognitive theory of multimedia learning……………………………………………….. 21

2.3. 4. 1. Extension of the cognitive theory of multimedia learning……………………. 26

  1. 3. 5. Benefits of multimedia for reading comprehension………………………………… 27
  2. مقالات و پایان نامه ارشد

  3. 3. 6. A Cognitive theory of multimedia learning implication for design…………. 28
  4. 3. 7. Advance organizers and meaningful learning…………………………………………. 30
  5. 3. 8. Instructional visualizations…………………………………………………………………….. 32
  6. 3. 9. Application of multimedia to language instruction…………………………………. 34
  7. 3. 10. Advantages of learning by multimedia instruction……………………………….. 36
  8. 3. 11. Multimedia aids for text comprehensions…………………………………………….. 36
  9. 3. 12. Krashens affective filter hypotheses…………………………………………………….. 37
  10. 3. 13. Concerns of multimedia English teaching…………………………………………….. 37
  11. 3. 14. Implications of multimedia in language learning and teaching……………… 38
  12. 3. 15 Computer assisted instruction for students……………………………………………. 39
  13. 3. 16. Benefit of CALL for reading comprehension ……………………………………….. 46
  • Vocabulary development software without multimedia components…………….. 47
  • Benefits of multimedia for reading comprehension……………………………………….. 47
  1. 3. 17. The role of prior knowledge in the process of multimedia learning………. 48
  2. 3.18. How we can improve the teaching learning interaction…………………………. 49
  • Dual code and multimedia effects………………………………………………………………….. 49
  • Manageable cognitive load……………………………………………………………………………. 49
  • Segmentation principle………………………………………………………………………………….. 50
  1. 3. 19. Using computers in ESL classroom…………………………………………… 50

2.3.20. Theoretical research about computer-based reading………………………………. 51

 

CHAPTER THREEMETHODOLOGY

3.1. Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………… 55

3.2. Subjects………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 55

3.3. Instrumentation…………………………………………………………………………………………… 57

3.3.1. Nelson test…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 57

یک مطلب دیگر :

3.3.2. Reading comprehension test………………………………………………………………….. 57

3.4. Data collection……………………………………………………………………………………………. 58

3.5. Materials……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 59

3.6. Procedure …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 59

3.7. Sampling and population…………………………………………………………………………….. 62

3.8. Design…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 62

3.9. Data analysis……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 62

 

CHAPTER FOURResults & Discussions

4.1. Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………… 64

4.2. Restatement of the Research Question and Hypothesis………………………………………. 64

4.3. Analysis of Scores on Nelson test…………………………………………………………………….. 65

4.4. Homogeneity analysis…………………………………………………………………………………. 65

  1. 5. Piloting: pretest and posttest ………………………………………………………………………….. 76

4.6. Pretest analysis ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 78

4.7. Posttest analysis………………………………………………………………………………………….. 87

4.8. Analysis of the data related to the Research Hypotheses…………………………………….. 90

4.8. Findings of the data analysis……………………………………………………………………….. 94

4.9. Interpretation of data analysis …………………………………………………………………………. 95

CHAPTER FIVE: Discussion, Conclusion& Pedagogical Implications

5.1. Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………… 96

5.2. Findings and conclusions……………………………………………………………………………. 97

5.3. Implications and applications……………………………………………………………………… 100

  1. Suggestion for further study…………………………………………………………………………. 100

REFERENCES………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 102

APPENDIXES…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 115

APPENDIX 1: NELSON Test……………………………………………………………………………… 116

APPENDIX 2: Reading comprehension test (pre-test and post-test)…………………… 129

APPENDIX 3: pretest and posttest and homogeneity raw scores………………………… 165

 

LIST OF TABLES

Table 4.1. Reliability Statistics of Nelson Test…………………………………………………… 65

Table4. 2. Descriptive statistics on NELSON homogeneity test ………………………… 65

Table4.3. descriptive analysis of the homogeneity test………………………………………. 68

Table 4. 4. The frequency of scores of the homogeneity test……………………………… 68

Table 4. 5. Descriptive statistics of homogenous students…………………………………. 69

Table 4. 6. Descriptive Statistics of group 1 and group 2……………………………………. 72

Table 4. 7. Tests of Normality of group 1 and group 2……………………………………….. 75

Table 4.8. The Descriptive Statistics for Groups 1 and 2……………………………………………. 75

Table. 4. 9. Independent Samples Test…………………………………………………………………….. 76

Table 4.10. Reliability Statistics of pretest and posttest for 35 items…………………………… 77

Table4. 11. Reliability Statistics of pretest and posttest for 30 items…………………………… 77

Table 4.12. Descriptive statistics of pretest for experimental and control group……………. 78

Table4.13. test of Normality for pretest…………………………………………………………………… 81

Table4.14.Descriptive statistic of experimental and control group in pretest………………… 86

Table 4.15. Independent Samples t-Test in pretest……………………………………………………. 86

Table4.16. Descriptive statistics of experimental and control group in post-test……………. 87

Table4.17. Tests of Normality for experimental and control group in posttest………………. 90


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